A foreclosure on rental property technically involves the sale of the property back to the lender. Form 1099-A Acquisition or Abandonment of Secured Property reports that the lender has repossessed or foreclosed on the property. Box 2 is the amount of the outstanding mortgage debt, and box 4 is the fair market value of the property. If the value of the foreclosed property exceeds the amount of outstanding debt, the debt is considered fully satisfied because the value of the property exceeds the outstanding debt meaning that there would be no debt to cancel after the lender acquires the property.
However if the lender also cancels debt associated with the transaction, there may be income to report from the cancellation of debt on IRS Form 1099-C.
When a foreclosed property is 'sold' back to the lender the gain or loss on that transaction is realized by the property owner or taxpayer. The gain or loss is the difference between the amount realized when the property is sold and the taxpayer’s adjusted basis or cost in purchasing and upgrading the property. IRS Publication 551 Basis of Assets is a good source of information on how the basis in the property might be increased or decreased during ownership.
The realized amount is contingent on whether the debt is recourse debt or non-recourse debt. If the debt is non-recourse debt the lender essentially cannot claim assets of the debtor if the secured property does not fully satisfy the outstanding debt. If the debt is recourse debt the lender essentially claims assets of the debtor when the secured property does not fully satisfy the outstanding debt. When the foreclosure involves recourse debt the amount realized is the smaller of the outstanding debt immediately before the foreclosure reduced by any amount of recourse debt for which the taxpayer was liable, or the fair market value of the property.
It is important to remember that Sec. 1245 property in the rental unit may be subject to depreciation recapture which is taxed as ordinary income and also that Sec. 1250 property does not necessarily require depreciation recapture particularly if the straight-line method is used. Sec. 1231 basically says that if the property is foreclosed or 'sold' at a loss, the loss is categorized as an ordinary loss not a capital loss.
The sale of the property is reported on IRS Form 4797 Sales of Business Property. The sale of the building is reported in Part I of Form 4797 if sold at a loss and in Part III if sold at a gain. Report the sale of the land separately in Part I, whether sold at a gain or loss. Any non-recaptured Sec. 1250 gain is entered in Part III of Schedule D Form 1040 Capital Gains and Losses.